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Effectiveness > Evidence Based Practice

The ‘Five Step Model’ for Evidence Based Practice (Sicily statement 2005)

  1. Translation of uncertainty into an answerable question.
  2. Systematic retrieval of best evidence available.
  3. Critical appraisal of evidence for validity, clinical relevance and applicability.
  4. Application of results in practice.
  5. Evaluation of performance (routine use of clinical outcome measures).

Reliable and Reputable Research Studies

A reputable and reliable research study, which informs evidence based practice, and points to an empirically supported treatment, requires a clear description of:


All of these ensure that the research study, and the treatment being studied, can be reliably replicated.

Evidence Based Practice

(EBP) is derived from reliable and reputable research studies.

Effectiveness Evidence Based Practice Outcome Measures Expected Standards

Evidence Based Practice is Essential for Safe and Effective Treatments

(Evidence based practice is) ……the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research.

(Sackett et al 1996)

The fact that an opinion has been widely held is no evidence whatever that it is not utterly absurd.

(Bertrand Russell 1882-1970)


Evidence-based health care means using scientific rigour to appraise evidence from a wide range of sources

to best benefit the patient or delivery of health care.

(Royal College of General Practitioners 2009)

(Empirically supported treatments [ESTs] can be defined).... as clearly specified psychological treatments shown to be efficacious in controlled research with a delineated population.

(Chambless & Hollon 1998)

The Psychotherapy Foundation is committed to developing and supporting the development of: